CHAPTER  600.  Soils, Re-vegetation, and Landscaping

601. Protection of Soils Resources and Erosion Control

602. Re-vegetation Requirements

603. Wetlands and High Water Table Requirements

604. Preservation of Prime and Important Statewide Farmlands

 

605.     Best Management Practices.  The purpose of this section is to provide guidelines and best management practices for site preparation and re-vegetation of soils that will allow drought resistant vegetation to be successfully established.  These guidelines should be utilized in vegetation and re-vegetation plans and implemented to ensure proper vegetation growth in open spaces, swales, planting strips, and retention/detention basins.   These best management practices emphasize minimal watering methods.  When minimal water methods are not desired, such as in subdivisions with secondary irrigation water, the contractor and/or home owner may submit a vegetation/re-vegetation plan consistent with this section but showing different plant materials and locations of irrigation lines and risers, etc.

 

605.2   Phase I Plant List and Landscape Guidelines  Native or low maintenance North Logan landscapes are generally composed of grasses and shrubs with a few scattered trees. A native or low maintenance grass and forb mix is recommended for Phase I plantings.  Outlined hereafter under the following ten headings are the best management practices to ensure growth of drought resistant grasses.  Additional plant materials (i.e. shrubs and trees) are addressed under Phase II plantings.

 

1.      SITE PREPARATION

2.      SEEDBED PREPARATION

3.      PLANT SELECTION AND AVAILABILITY

4.      RECOMMENDED PLANT LIST

5.      SEEDING METHODS

6.      MULCHING

7.      IRRIGATION

8.      MAINTENANCE

9.      MONITORING VEGETATION

10.  WARRANTY FOR SUCCESS

 

605.2.1            Site Preparation

Weed Control

·        If weeds or other undesirable vegetation have grown into the project area, complete re-vegetation is necessary.

·        The seedbed should be prepared by applying herbicide such as Roundup (glyphosate) to the weeds before flowering and three to six weeks before pre-construction activities.  After vegetation is dead, till or disk the soil to a depth greater than three inches.

·        Timing is critical when using non-selective herbicides.  Treatment should be during the growing season (when plants are green).

 

Topsoil

·        Generally, six to eight inches of good topsoil are needed for native plants.

·        Roadside construction or reconstruction frequently requires re-grading and consequently topsoil disturbance.

·        New roadsides often contain fill material not conducive to plant establishment.

·        It is recommended to retain and stockpile original topsoil on site for use in the project.

·        Soil samples may be taken and analyzed at the Utah State University Soil Testing Lab.  The lab may recommend amending based on the soil test results and proposed plant species.

·        Topsoil should be tested to determine weed seed content.

 

Topsoil Removal

·        Topsoil should be removed to a depth of twelve inches or until bedrock or stony subsoil is found. Topsoil salvage after removal is critical in arid climates like Utah.

·        Topsoil should be separated from subsoil materials and stockpiled until needed for final grading.

 

Topsoil Handling

·        Topsoil can be windrowed or stockpiled to areas near where it is to be placed for final grading.

·        Topsoil should not be handled when wet or frozen.

·        Topsoil should not be replaced when windy conditions would cause excessive erosion or dust.

 

Topsoil Storage

·        Topsoil should be stored separately and protected with mulch if stored for longer than one month. 

·        Soil should be free of weed seeds and rocks over four inches in diameter.

·        Redistribute topsoil as quickly as possible.

·        Stockpiles should not exceed 100 cubic yards in size.

·        Vehicular traffic should be excluded from topsoil stockpiles.

 

605.2.2            Seedbed Preparation 

Seedbed preparation involves working with topsoil to provide optimum conditions for germination, growth, and seedling establishment.

 

Topsoil Properties

·        Firm, but not compacted below the seeding depth.

·        Free from undesirable plant competition.

·        Free from seed of competitive weed species.

·        The topsoil should be firmly packed, but not compacted.

 

Topsoil Scarification (Necessary if new topsoil is not brought in.)

·        Topsoil scarification consists of mechanically breaking the soil surface to improve air and water infiltration.

 

Primary Tillage

·        Mechanically ripping heavily compacted soils to a depth of three inches. 

·        Do not extend below twelve inches to avoid bringing rocky subsoil to the surface.

·        Secondary tillage is necessary when primary tillage results in a cloddy surface.

 

Timing of Scarification

·        The timing of topsoil scarification should coincide with seeding times.  Seeding is most effective in the fall (see Seeding Window) and topsoil scarification should occur no more than one week before seeding.

 

605.2.3            Plant Selection and Availability

·        See recommended plant list for a grass and forb seed mix suited to Northern Utah’s harsh climate.

·        Commercial seed companies will provide custom seed mixes.

·        Availability:  Commercial sources of native seed have been limited in the past. A list of native seed suppliers with seed suited to Northern Utah is included in this document. Availability may affect plant selection. Availability will vary from year to year.

·        Seed must be free of noxious weeds and meet the quality requirements of state law.

·        A mix of several grasses and forbs is used rather than single species to provide diversity and improve re-vegetation success.

 

605.2.4            Recommended Plant List

 

SEED MIX ONE - SHORT GRASS & FORB MIX 

This mix is offered as a guide.  It will rarely need irrigation after establishment. If given too much water, taller plants may invade. Ratios of species will vary on different sites.  A custom mix can be usually be determined by various seed companies at the time seeds are ordered. Other similar drought tolerant plant species are acceptable and could be used in mixes to achieve the intended results.

 

GRASSES

Buchloe dactyloides                Buffalo Grass

Bouteloua gracilis                   Blue Gramma Grass (dominant grass if wildflowers are the primary interest.)

Elymus lanceolatus ‘Sodar’    Streambank Wheatgrass

Festuca ovina glauca              Blue Fescue

Festuca ovina                                     Sheep Fescue

           

FORBS (Perennial Wild Flowers)

Aster spp.                                Aster

Berlandiera lyrata                   Chocolate Flower

Eriogonum umbellatum          Sulpher Buckwheat 

Erigeron speciosus                  Aspen Daisy

Gaillardia aristata                  Indian Blanket Flower

            Gillia aggregata                      Scarlet Gilia

            Linum perenne, var. lewisii     Lewis Blue Flax

Lupinus argenteus                   Silvery Lupine

Mirabilis multiflora                 Wild Four 0’ Clock     

Oenothera caespitosa             Evening Primrose

Penstimon pinifolius               Pineleaf Penstimon

            Penstemon secundifloris         Sidebells Penstemon

Penstemon strictus                  Rocky Mountain Penstemon

            Ratitiba columnifera               Mexican Hat Coneflower

            Senecio longilobus                  Threadleaf Groundsel

Viguiera multiflora                 Showy Goldeneye

Zinnia grandiflora                   Prairie Zinnia

           

SEED MIX TWO -  MIDGRASS & FORB MIX    (Approximately Knee High: 12“– 24”)

 

GRASSES

Andropogon scoparius            Little Bluestem

Bouteloua curtipendula           Sideoats Gramma

Elymus lanceolatus ‘Sodar’    Streambank Wheatgrass

Elymus trachycaulus               Slender Wheatgrass

Elymus smithii ‘Roadcrest’     Low-growing Crested Wheatgrass

Poa secunda                            Sandberg Bluegrass

            Sporabolus airoides                Alakali Sacaton           

            Stipa hymenoides                    Indian Rice Grass

 

FORBS (Perennial Wild Flowers)

            Aster spp.                                Aster

Balsamorhiza sagitta              Arrowleaf Balsamroot

Berlandiera lyrata                   Chocolate Flower

Echinacea purpurea                Purple Coneflower

Gaillardia aristata                  Indian Blanket Flower

            Linum perenne, var. lewisii     Lewis Blue Flax

            Geranium viscosissimum        Wild geranium

            Linum lewisii                           Blue Flax

Lupinus argenteus                   Silvery Lupine  

Monarda spp.                          Bee Balm

            Penstemon cyananthus           Wasatch Penstemon

            Penstemon strictus                  Rocky Mountain Penstemon

            Ratitiba columnifera               Mexican Hat Coneflower

 

605.2.5            Seeding

 

Seed Quality

·        Seed should be measured by PLS (Pure Live Seed) weight to indicate the proportion of live seed in the mixture.  This method will ensure correct seeding rate calculations.

·        To ensure quality seed from a seed broker, a signed letter may be necessary from the seed broker certifying the quality of seed within 60 days from “Notice to Proceed” on a given project.

 

Seed Storage

·        Seed should be used as soon after purchase as possible. Store in dry, cool location.

 

Seasonal Seeding Window

·        Fall seeding is recommended (September 1 - November 15).  Soil moisture is highest in the spring and this provides the best chance for successful germination of seeds planted in the fall.

·        Early fall seeding (August 15 – Sept 15)  With rain, the grass will grow in the fall, go dormant over winter, then grow again in the spring.

·        Late fall seeding (November 1 – November 15)  Seed lies dormant and then will grow in the spring.

·        Early spring seeding (March 15 - April 15)  

·        Seeding must occur shortly after site and seedbed preparation.  If the time between site prep and seeding is more than a few weeks, then secondary tillage will need to be repeated before seeding occurs.

 

Seeding Method

Two basic types of seeding: Drill seeding and broadcast seeding.

 

1.      Drill Seeding (Preferred method for North Logan City)

·        Slopes must be less then 3:1.

·        Germination rates are generally higher with drill seeding verses broadcast seeding. 

·        Drill seeding improves seed coverage, provides accurate seed metering and calibration, and can be used to seed into stubble. 

·        Drill seeders are more efficient on larger, flatter sites. 

·        Drilled rows may not be as aesthetically appealing.

 

2.   Broadcast seeding

·        Broadcast seeding by hand, mechanical spreader, or hydroseeding may be used on slopes steeper than 3:1.  Seeds need to be raked in by hand and compacted with a roller.

·        Broadcast seeding is also used in areas where rocky conditions might damage a drill seeder, or in areas not large enough to justify the use of a drill.

 

Seed Application Rate

Seeding rates should be based on seeding method, seed size, seedling vigor, and PLS specifications provided by the seed supplier.  Rates are to be adjusted to the site conditions. Commercial seed companies will provide seed application rates and planting depth.

 

605.2.6            Mulching

·        Mulch will provide erosion control, help retain moisture, retard evaporation, intercept surface runoff, reduce soil temperature, and generally increase transplant establishment. 

·        The type of mulch used will vary depending on seeding method used, slope gradients, wind erodability of soil, and the size of area to be mulched. 

·        Whatever type, the mulch must be anchored to the soil to be effective.

·        Mulch is applied after seeding grasses and forbs and before planting trees and shrubs.

·        Straw Mulch.   Straw mulch should have less than 20% moisture content and be free of mold and weed seed. 

·        Mulch should be applied by a mechanical blower on slopes less then 3:1.

·        Mulch should be broadcast and cover at least 50% of the soil surface.

 

605.2.7            Irrigation 

·        Native grasses will often need temporary irrigation for the first one to two years, until establishment, depending on seasonal rains.

·        A weekly deep watering (one to two inches) per application should be adequate for this period.  Monitoring is essential at this time.

·        Irrigate efficiently – not excessively.

 

605.2.8            Maintenance

·        Until plants are established, a properly followed maintenance schedule may be crucial for optimum success.  Weed control shall be limited to mechanical methods (i.e. hoeing and pulling).  The plant materials list utilizes grasses and forbs (wildflowers) selected to maintain themselves after establishment without the general use of herbicides. Plant establishment will take approximately two growing seasons for the grass mix and approximately two growing seasons for the trees and shrubs. If herbicide application is needed for the control of noxious weeds, it should be applied by spot spraying only the problem areas.

·        Native plants thrive on conscientious neglect. 

·        Mowing is generally discouraged after establishment of the desired plant materials.  When mowing is used, mower should be set at the highest possible setting (minimum three inches).

·        Use mulches to inhibit weed growth and improve water retention where needed.

·        Follow recommended pruning and mowing schedule.

 

605.2.9            Monitoring Vegetation

·        Monitoring is crucial for success.  Someone familiar with the specified plant material should do this.

·        The monitoring program should consist of site visits and proper documentation of vegetation progress, irrigation needs, erosion, or other problems that may need to be corrected. 

·        Evaluate plant establishment and identify areas with success and areas with failures and determine why.  Identify the presence of noxious or unwanted weeds.  Summarize monitoring information and prepare recommendations for follow-up remedial activities.  The monitoring should occur at approximately the same time each year.

·        The re-vegetated site should be monitored for approximately two to three years; twice a year, for the first two years, and once a year after.

 

Items to note during monitoring inspection:

 

·        Irrigation Needs.

·        Soil slumping.

·        Noxious or undesirable weed invasion.

·        Degree of damage by wildlife (including insects) on seed, seedlings, and plant materials.

·        Re-vegetation success.

·        Degree of trampling on re-vegetated areas.

·        Erosion.

 

605.2.10          Warrantee for Success

·        All maintenance and monitoring guidelines must be specifically followed until plants are established (approximately two years). If guidelines are followed, re-vegetation success rate should be high.

·        The contractor or landowner shall provide to city engineer each six months during the period of warranty, a monitoring report showing the re-vegetation results and any problems with erosion or planned plant materials not being successfully established and corrective actions to be taken.

·        Landowners with approved re-vegetation or landscape plans different than the Phase I or Phase II requirement will be responsible for achieving the results of their respective plan. If results of plan are not achieved or landscaping is not maintained according to the plan the City may require that the responsible party restore city right-of-way to vegetation specified in the Phase I and/or Phase II requirements.

·        When restoration or corrective action is required for properly prepared seedbeds generally a "top dressing" approach is preferred to correct localized problems. Reseeding should be accomplished by re-disturbing the topsoil to a depth of ½ to one inch, applying the predetermined seed mix, re-raking, mulching and irrigating according to the landscaping plan.

 

605.3               Phase II Plant List and Landscape Guidelines

Phase II plant materials list and landscape guidelines would normally follow the establishment of plant materials under Phase I requirements, but could be implemented concurrently with Phase I plantings.  Outlined hereafter under the following ten headings are the Phase II planting guidelines.

 

1.                  PLANTING DESIGN

2.                  PLANTING METHOD FOR TREES AND SHRUBS

3.                  PLANTING SCHEDULE

4.                  PLANTING BULBS AND GROUNDCOVER

5.                  PLANT LIST

6.                  IRRIGATION

7.                  MAINTENANCE

8.                  MONITORING

9.                  WARRANTY FOR SUCCESS

10.              PLANT SOURCE

 

605.3.1            Planting Design

·        Native North Logan landscapes are generally composed of grasses and shrubs with a few scattered trees.  Planting design should be informal for rural areas.

·        Arrange plants in a naturalistic design by planting in groups and avoiding straight rows.

 

605.3.2            Planting Method for Trees and Shrubs

·        Tree and Shrub planting should follow establishment of desired grasses and forbs, 

(one to two growing seasons)

·        Trees should be planted after spot spraying herbicide (glyphosate herbicide) to prepare individual planting locations. Five days should elapse between herbicide application and plant installation. This will eliminate local competition and provide a higher success rate.

·        Prepare a hole for planting that is the depth of the nursery stock or tubling container and twice as wide.

·        Backfill and “water in” the root-ball to ensure good root to soil contact and eliminate large air pockets.

·        Create a divot-type water harvest basin around the tubling.

·        Water plant well.

 

605.3.3            Planting Schedule

·        Trees and shrubs should be planted in early spring when soil moisture is greatest and before plants break dormancy. 

·        Early spring (April - mid May) is recommended.  

·        The second choice is during middle to late fall (October-Nov).

 

605.3.4            Planting Bulbs and Groundcovers

·        Plant bulbs in the fall before the ground freezes.

·        Planting methods and depth should adhere to nursery recommendations.

·        Plant groundcover in the fall or spring, water in thoroughly. Planting methods and depth should adhere to nursery recommendations.

 

605.3.5            Recommended Plant List

·        Plants should be drought tolerant and adaptable to Northern Utah’s climate.

·        Availability may affect plant selection.

·        Native plants can be difficult to purchase at times. 

·        Availability will vary from year to year.


 


Native Selection        

 

Alternative Selection

                                               

TREES - DECIDUOUS

 

 

Acer grandidentatum

BigTooth Maple

Syringa paniculata

Jap. Lilac Tree

Crateagaus douglasi

Douglas Hawthorn       

Acer ginnala   

Amur Maple

Prunus virginiana

Chokecherry

Crataegus Lavallei

Lavelle Hawthorn

Quercus gambelii        

Gambel Oak                 

Crataegus phaenopyrum

Washington Hawthorn  

 

 

Crataegus x mordenensis ‘toba’

Toba Hawthorn

 

 

Prunus virginana Schubert

Schubert Chokecherry

 

 

Quercus Shumardii

Shumard Oak

 

 

 

 

TREES – EVERGREEN

 

 

Juniperus osteosperma

Utah Juniper

Juniperus virginiana ‘Skyrocket’

Skyrocket Juniper

Pinus aristata

Bristlecone Pine

Pinus edulis

Pinion Pine

Juniperus Scopulorum ‘Grey Gleam”

Grey Gleam

 

 

Pinus mugo

Mugo Pine

 

 

 

 

SHRUBS

 

 

 

Amelanchier alnifolia 

Serviceberry

Lonicera tatarica

Honeysuckle

Cercocarpus montanus

Mountain Mahogany

Caragana pygmaea    

Pigmy Pea Shrub

Chamaebatiaria millifolium

Fernbush

Ribes (sp.) alpinum

Alpine Currant

Chrysothamnus nauseosus

Rubber Rabbitbrush

Rhus aromatica

Aromatic Sumac

Purshia tridentata

Antelope Bitterbrush

Rhus glabra

Smooth Sumac

Rhus trilobata 

Three-Leaf Sumac       

                       

                       

Ribes aureum

Golden Currant

 

 

 

 

 

 

GROUNDCOVER

 

 

 

Mahonia repens

Creeping Oregon Grape

Cerastium tomentosum

Snow & Summer

 

 

 

 

BULBS                                              

 

 

                       

Camassia quamash

Camas Lily

Tulipa 

Species Tulips  

 

 

Narcissus sp.

Daffodills

 

The above species will usually produce the best results in the North Logan area.

 

605.3.6 Irrigation

 

·        Trees and shrubs will need temporary irrigation for the first two years of establishment.  

·        A weekly deep watering (one to two inches) per application should be adequate for this period. Monitoring is essential.

·        Irrigate efficiently – not excessively.

 

605.3.7 Maintenance

 

·        Until plants are established, a properly followed monitoring and maintenance schedule will be crucial for optimum success.    Plant establishment will take approximately two growing seasons for the trees and shrubs. (See Monitoring Vegetation)

·        Native plants thrive on conscientious neglect.

·        Use mulches to inhibit weed growth and improve water retention where needed.

·        Follow recommended pruning and mowing schedule.

 

605.3.8  Monitoring Vegetation

 

·        Monitoring the re-vegetation process is crucial for success.  Someone familiar with the specified plant material should do this. The monitoring program should consist of site visits and proper documentation of vegetation progress, erosion, or other problems that may need to be corrected. 

·        Evaluate plant establishment and identify areas with success and areas with failures and determine why.  Identify the presence of noxious or unwanted weeds.  Summarize monitoring information and prepare recommendations for follow-up remedial activities.  The monitoring should occur at the approximately the same time each year.

·        The re-vegetated site should be monitored for approximately two to three years; twice a year, for the first two years, and once a year after.

 

Items to note during monitoring inspection:

 

·        Irrigation Needs.

·        Soil slumping.

·        Noxious or undesirable weed invasion.

·        Degree of damage by wildlife (including insects) on seed, seedlings, and plant materials.

·        Re-vegetation success.

·        Degree of trampling on re-vegetated areas.

·        Erosion.

 

605.3.9            Warranty for Success

·        All maintenance and monitoring guidelines must be specifically followed until plants are established (approximately two years). If guidelines are followed, re-vegetation success rate should be high.

·        The contractor or landowner shall provide to city engineer each six months during the period of warranty, a monitoring report showing the re-vegetation results and any problems with erosion or planned plant materials not being successfully established and corrective actions to be taken.

·        Landowners with approved re-vegetation or landscape plans different than the Phase I or Phase II requirement will be responsible for achieving the results of their respective plan. If results of plan are not achieved or landscaping is not maintained according to the plan the City may require that the responsible party restore city right-of-way to vegetation specified in the Phase I and/or Phase II requirements.

·        When restoration or corrective action is required for properly prepared seedbeds generally a "top dressing" approach is preferred to correct localized problems. Reseeding should be accomplished by re-disturbing the topsoil to a depth of ½ to one inch, applying the predetermined seed mix, re-raking, mulching and irrigating according to the landscaping plan.

 

605.3.10          Plant Source

 

Contractors, developers and landowners are encouraged to check with local nurseries for seed and plant materials, but seed and nursery stock can usually be purchased from the following suppliers if not available locally:

 


Granite Seed Company

1697 West 2100 north

P.O. Box 177

Lehi, UT 84043

(801) 768-4422

 

Lone Peak Conservation Center

State Forest Nurseries

14650 S. Prison Road

Draper, UT 84020-9599

 

Progressive Plants

9180 S. Wasatch Blvd.

Sandy, UT 84902

(801) 942-7333

 

Steve Reagan Company

4215 South 500 West

Murray, UT 84115

(801) 268-4596
Stevenson Intermountain Seed

P.O. Box 2

Ephraim, UT 84627

(801) 283-6639

 

Wheatland

Brigham City, UT

 

Valley Nursery

6484 S. 2000 E. Ogden, UT

 

J&J Nursery

West Gentile, Layton, UT

 

Tony Grove Nursery

Highway 91, Hyde Park, UT

 

The Greenhouse

            Logan, UT


 

 

(Res. 01-14)